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What Is A Universal Joint?

The universal joint consists of a spider(cross) and four grease-filled roller bearings. It can transmit ample torque at low friction. Spider with journal pegs and bearing cases as outer rings were hot forged or cold formed and machined. They are later carburized in the furnace to obtain increased ruggedness and wear resistance. Parts are finally ground to the designed size under strict tolerance. Oil seals and dust covers are also in use to protect the internal journal area from the intrusion of foreign material. Various grades and materials are selected to respond to extreme conditions such as scorching/frigid temperatures.

Universal joints can be widely used in all types of power transmission systems. They have many applications. They can be used in food processing equipment to replace expensive gearboxes and drives. In addition, they are often used to connect the power take-off drive shafts in off-road tractors, which operate traction machines such as tractor mowers and forages.

OEMs often need new and redesigned products for universal joints that can not be satisfied with off-the-shelf u-joint designs. Be it a unique shaft design, unusually high speeds or torque, or otherwise harsh operating conditions, we can design and manufacture a custom u joint along with the special hub machining needed to fit your application.

Custom U Joints

Company Profile

About EPT

Our company is a modern enterprise that combines development, design, manufacture, sale, and service, and its products include universal joint, transmission shaft and yokes, etc., which are sold in more than 20provinces in China, and many foreign countries, in USA, Mexico, Russia, Brazil, Spain, India, Japan, Italy, Germany Etc.


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Types and Characteristics of Universal Joints

There are many types of custom universal joints, one of which is a rigid universal joint. This universal joint refers to a joint with no apparent elasticity in the torsional direction. It can be divided into constant velocity universal joint, quasi constant velocity universal joint, and unequal velocity universal joint.

  • The most important one is the rigid universal joint with a cross shaft. They are versatile joint forks, cross shafts, needle bearings, oil seals, sleeves, bearing caps, and other parts.
  • The working principle of the universal joint of the cross shaft is that one of the rotating forks drives the other fork to rotate through the cross shaft, and at the same time, it can swing in any direction around the center of the cross shaft.
  • The needle rollers in the needle roller bearings can rotate during rotation to reduce friction. Working at an angle between the input and output shafts, the angular velocity of the two poles of the universal joint cross is unequal.
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Hot Sale Universal Joints

U-Joint With 4 Grooved Round Bearings 5-170X

The universal joint is used to realize variable angle power transmission. It is used to change the position of the transmission axis direction. It is the “joint” part of the universal transmission device of the automobile drive system.

U-Joint With 4 Plain Round Bearings 5-160X

The universal joint consists of a spider(cross) and four grease-filled roller bearings. It can transmit ample torque at low friction. Spider with journal pegs and bearing cases as outer rings were hot forged or cold formed and machined.

U-Joint With 4 Wing Bearings CZ108

A universal joint (also called a universal coupling or U-joint) is a joint or coupling connecting rigid shafts whose axes are inclined to each other. It is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.

U-Joint With 2 Welder Plate Type And 2 Plain Round Bearings 5-674X

Our company is a Universal Joint Manufacturer offering universal joint crosses, which are known for their precise design & durability. Manufactured from qualitative raw materials, these crosses are available in various sizes and shapes, thus meeting the requirements of our clients.

U-Joint With Pressed Bearings CZ201-1

They are part of the system that enables the rotating crankshaft in a vehicle's engine to transfer that rotating motion to the rear wheels in a rear-wheel-drive vehicle. Because they provide a flexible connection at the driveshaft's ends, they allow the driveshaft to move up and down and at an angle to the engine as the vehicle encounters uneven road surfaces.

U-Joint With 4 Welded Plate Type Round Bearings 5-279x-1

The u-joint is one of the oldest of all flexible couplings. It is commonly known for its use on automobiles and trucks. A universal joint in its simplest form consists of two shaft yokes at right angles and a four-point cross-connecting yoke. The cross rides inside the bearing cap assemblies, which are pressed into the yoke eyes.


Tractor Power Output Universal Joint Failure Reason

The power output is out of gear, and the gear is not in place.

If the power output is out of gear and the gear is not in place, the power output and the universal joint will not rotate. In actual work, the power output is out of equipment, which is caused by gear wear, ample clearance, slight self-locking spring pressure, etc. The deformation of the fork is easy, causing the gear to be out of position, the bag is not in place, and the load will be significant.

Power output front axle, or power output rear axle break

Power output shaft breakage is one of the most common faults on tractors. Most tractor power output is now two-and-a-half with external flanges for easy maintenance. Commonly, the power output of the flange has a broken half shaft. There is also a power output front half shaft broken, the power output shaft is broken, and the universal joint will not turn.

After the parts are washed and dried in clean wash oil, check the journals, bearings, oil seals, and thrust washers of the cross shaft again. Some cars do not have the parts such as washers, and there should be no defects.

When installing the cross shaft into the universal joint fork, ensure that the side with the grease nipple on the cross shaft faces the drive shaft so that grease can be added during maintenance.

If there is a thrust washer, the washer should be placed between the inner end surface of the bearing seat and the end surface of the cross shaft head. After the bearing cap fastening bolts are tightened, the universal joint fork should be able to rotate freely on the cross shaft.

Precautions When Assembling the Cross Shaft Universal Joint

Other Types

Other Types Of Universal Joints

Variable speed universal joint
The cross-shaft rigid universal joint is a variable speed universal joint widely used in automobiles, and the maximum angle of intersection between two adjacent shafts is allowed to be 15゜~20゜. In order to lubricate the bearings, oil injection nozzles are generally installed on the cross shaft, and an oil path leads to the journal. The lubricating oil can be injected from the grease nipple to the needle bearing of the cross shaft journal.
Quasi-constant velocity universal joint
Common quasi-constant velocity universal joints have two types, double-joint type and three-pin shaft type. Their working principle is the same as that of double cross-shaft universal joint to realize constant velocity transmission. The double universal joint is actually a set of double cross-shaft universal joint constant velocity transmission device that reduces the length of the transmission shaft to the minimum.
Constant velocity universal joint
At present, the commonly used constant velocity universal joints on cars are ball-and-cage universal joints, and there are also ball-fork universal joints or free three-pivot universal joints. The star sleeve 7 is connected with the driving shaft 1 by an inner spline, and six arc-shaped grooves are formed on the outer surface to form an inner raceway. The inner surface of the spherical shell 8 has corresponding six arc-shaped grooves to form an outer raceway.
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Frequently Asked Questions

Advantages Of Universal Joint Cross
A universal joint cross's advantage is to simplify the equipment transmission design. The function of the universal joint is: The transmission shaft can transmit the power of the transmission (or transfer case) to the main engine in a specific angular range. The reduction gear in the transmission prevents damage to the transmission shaft components;
Causes and treatment of universal joint cross shaft wear
The failure of the drive shaft universal joint is mainly due to the wear of the journal and the bearing and the bending deformation of each journal so that the center line of each axis of the cross shaft is not on the same plane as the adjacent two-axis center lines are not perpendicular. Due to the excessive wear clearance of the universal joint cross shaft journal and the bearing, the cross shaft sways during operation, causing the center line of the transmission shaft to deviate from its rotation center line, causing the transmission shaft to vibrate and the abnormal sound of the transmission shaft during operation.
Maintenance-free Bearings and Maintenance-free Universal Joints
The maintenance-free universal joint is similar to the maintenance-free bearing. The cross fork itself has no internal lubrication tube and no grease nipple. Instead, it has a relatively shallow depression on the end of the cross. The depression can be used as a reservoir for grease. Reduces grease consumption and eliminates regular maintenance over the life cycle of the Maintenance-Free Universal Joint.
How to Extend the Service Life of the Drive Shaft?
The drive shaft is a device that transmits the engine power sent by the transmission to the drive axle. It comprises a shaft tube, a telescopic sleeve, and a universal joint for the truck. Different vehicles have different structures and drive shafts because of their other forms. Therefore, what aspects should be paid attention to when using it to extend the life of the drive shaft? (1)Don't start at high gear(2)Avoid overloading and overspeeding(3)Frequently check and maintain the drive shaft(4)If the transmission shaft fails, stop and check immediately.
How the Universal Joint Drive Shaft Works?
The custom universal joints drive shaft is a very important part of auto parts. In a car with front-engine rear-wheel drive or all-wheel drive, due to the deformation of the suspension during the movement of the car, the drive shaft main reducer input shaft and transmission output There is often relative movement between axes. In addition, in order to effectively avoid certain mechanisms or devices, there must be a device to realize the normal transmission of power, so universal joint transmission appears.

U-joint Assembly

U-bolts are u-shaped bracket pieces that secure a cross piece onto a driveshaft yoke. They fit around the bearing caps and bolt onto the yoke piece. U-bolts are different from U-joint straps but serve a similar function.


A yoke is fitted at the end of each rotating shaft, and typically has two ears (round openings) for a cross-piece to fit into. Two different rotating shafts can be conjoined with a u-joint, with two of the four cross piece prongs inserted into the yoke of each shaft.


A rigid metal shaft that transmits rotational force from a power source to the drive wheels of a vehicle, or to/from a transfer case that controls the drive wheels. Also described as a propeller shaft. Driveshafts may feature 2 or 3 universal joints depending on the design.


U-joint straps are a style of bracket used to secure a cross piece to a driveshaft yoke. They fit around the bearing caps and bolt onto the yoke piece. Straps are different from U-bolts but serve a similar function.

U-Joint Strap

These fit on the ends of each of the + shaped cross pieces in a U-joint assembly and are secured with snap rings around their outer edge. Inside the caps are small seals, roller bearings, and washer pieces. The caps are packed with lubricating grease to prevent heat buildup and part failure.

Bearing Cap

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U joints are precision manufactured to provide dependable performance and maximum life expectancy for automotive, medium, and heavy-duty trucks, buses, RV vehicles, construction and off-highway, agricultural and industrial applications.